For biological research molecular DNA and RNA based techniques such as (q)PCR, sequencing and CRISPR-Cas9 already are more prevalent for most use cases rather than microbiology based techniques. All industries working with living organisms use these DNA or RNA based techniques nowadays, such as the food and medical industry. One thing both DNA and RNA based techniques have in common is the need for sufficient and high quality (in both purity and integrity) input material. Therefore isolation and purification of DNA and RNA from sample material is required.
Methods for DNA and RNA Isolation
In order to isolate DNA or RNA from a certain sample it is important to select the best isolation method considering factors such as yield, purity, time and cost.
Organic Isolation method
The first type of DNA or RNA isolation methods yielding usable and pure DNA or RNA is derived decades ago, in the sixties. These DNA or RNA isolation methods called organic isolation. They use phenol and chloroform chemicals to separate the DNA or RNA molecules form other cell components after cell lysis. Although this method is cheap and has a good yield, it involves many steps and is more time-consuming compared to the more modern DNA and RNA isolation methods. Also, working with dangerous chemicals is something you would rather avoid.
Silica based method
The more modern solid phase type DNA and RNA isolation methods involve the use of silica, which has the properties of binding to DNA and RNA molecules. After cell lysis, chaotropic salts are added to the samples, these chaotropic salts break some hydrogen bonds present in DNA or RNA strands to facilitate binding to silica. Silica based methods come in two forms:
Column based method
A lysed sample containing DNA or RNA is forced through a column containing a silica membrane holding back DNA and RNA.
Magnetic bead based method
This method uses magnetic beads, coated with silica, binding DNA and RNA that can now be separated using a magnet.
For both silica methods, the captured DNA and/or RNA is purified by applying a series of wash buffers, allowing any contaminants to be removed. In order to elute the DNA and/or RNA from the silica an elution buffer is used to rehydrate the DNA and RNA molecules.
In contradiction to column based silica methods, magnetic silica bead based methods also have the advantage of lacking any centrifugation or filtration steps. This makes the magnetic bead based method particularly suitable for use in in high throughput automated applications.
CleanNA provides multiple products for DNA and RNA Isolation: Clean Viral DNA/RNA kit, Clean Blood Tissue DNA kit, Clean Blood LV DNA kit, Clean Circulating DNA kit, Clean FFPE DNA kit, Clean FFPE RNA kit, Clean Pathogen DNA/RNA kit, Clean Plant PK DNA kit, Clean Plasmid DNA kit, Clean Plasmid TR DNA kit and the CleanPCR.